Margaret Ferrier has been suspended from the House of Commons for 30 days for breaching coronavirus rules.
The Commons voted 185 to 40, majority 145, to approve the motion to suspend the independent MP for Rutherglen and Hamilton West.
Ms Ferrier, a former SNP MP, was in the Commons chamber as MPs approved her suspension.
She could now face a by-election after breaching Covid rules in 2020 by travelling by train from Scotland to England while positive for the virus.
Any MP who misses 10 sitting days due to suspension is at risk of a by-election – but 10% of voters in their constituency must sign a recall petition.
SNP by-election campaign coordinator David Linden MP said: “There must now be a by-election, which the SNP has been calling for since Ms Ferrier’s Covid rule-breach first came to light in 2020.
“People in Rutherglen and Hamilton West are paying an unacceptable price for the damaging policies of the Tories and pro-Brexit Labour Party, as the cost of living soars.
“The SNP is the only party offering a real alternative. We will put the cost of living, NHS and independence at the heart of our campaign – and we’ll work hard for every vote to ensure the people of Rutherglen and Hamilton West can elect a strong SNP MP to stand up for them.”